Particle Filtering (PF) methods are an established class of procedures for performing inference in non-linear state-space models. Resampling is a key ingredient of PF, necessary to obtain low variance likelihood and states estimates. However, traditional resampling methods result in PF-based loss functions being non-differentiable with respect to model and PF parameters. In a variational inference context, resampling also yields high variance gradient estimates of the PF-based evidence lower bound. By leveraging optimal transport ideas, we introduce a principled differentiable particle filter and provide convergence results. We demonstrate this novel method on a variety of applications.
Accepted as a Long talk at ICML 2021.